PhD Student
Work & Organizations


  • M.Sc. 2014
    Public Policy and Management Carnegie Mellon University
  • S.E. 2007
    Management Universitas Indonesia


Adrianto completed his Bachelor's degree in Economics from Universitas Indonesia and Master's degree in Public Policy and Management from Carnegie Mellon University. Prior to entering Carlson School of Management, Adrianto had worked in an organizational design unit of an Indonesian government agency for 10 years and had conducted studies on organizational health, job analysis, workload analysis, and organizational design, particularly in the Indonesian public sector. He is interested in studying the impacts of technological change on organizational design and business processes. His current research focuses on the impacts of additive manufacturing on division of labor and specialization and the effects of remote working on knowledge sharing among employees and job performance.

Selected Works & Activities

  • Journal Articles
    Adrianto & Wibowo, Buddi. (2007). Pengujian Teori Pecking Order Pada Perusahaan-Perusahaan Non Keuangan LQ45 Periode 2001-2005, Manajemen Usahawan Indonesia, 36(12), 43-53.
  • Presentations
    The Work in the Age of Intelligent Machines Conference. "Who Does What? Theory and Evidence on the Effects of Technology on Division of Labor and Specialization"
  • Presentations
    2022 Industry Studies Association Annual Conference. "Who Does What? Theory and Evidence on the Effects of Technology on Division of Labor and Specialization"
  • Who does what? Theory and evidence on the effects of technology on division of labor and specialization

    Avner Ben-Ner, Ainhoa Urtasun, and Adrianto

    The bundling of tasks into jobs and the nature of skills required to execute them are referred to as division of labor and specialization at the firm level. Numerous contributions in the economics, human resources, operations management, and strategy literatures have explored the effects of technology, product and labor markets, social values and relations, and other factors on the extent of division of labor and specialization. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework for analyzing the effects of technology on division of labor and specialization in organizations. We build on economic analysis, which emphasizes the tradeoff between the benefits of specialization and the costs of communication and coordination among workers and units (Becker and Murphy 1992, Borghans and ter Weel 2006, Akçomak, Borghans, and Weel 2011, Williamson 1972, Teece 1986) and on value chain configuration analysis (Stabell and Fjeldstad 1998), which focuses on ways of organizing interdependence between activities (Thompson 1967).

    To understand the determinants of division of labor and specialization, we analyze two key dimensions of technology: (1) flexibility-rigidity and associated uncertainty/predictability of outcomes and (2) integration-separability of tasks. We argue that these dimensions determine the nature of complementarity and interdependence among tasks and the breadth of skills workers must possess. In a nutshell, the greater the flexibility and task integration, the greater will be the degree of reciprocal interdependence and therefore the extent of multitasking, which requires broad skills – that is, division of labor and specialization will be limited. In contrast, the greater the rigidity and separability of the production process, the greater the degree of sequential interdependence and therefore the more limited number of tasks carried out by each worker and unit – detailed division of labor – and therefore the narrower skillset required – greater specialization - of workers and units.

    We analyze two technologies, traditional manufacturing (TM) and the emerging additive manufacturing (AM). Products made by AM methods usually consist of a single piece that does not require assembly, are geometrically complex and lighter than similar TM product, where geometric complexity is attained by assembling multiple parts. These substantially computerized technologies entail drastically different production processes and different degrees of flexibility and integration. We conjecture that the more limited product flexibility (greater rigidity) and more limited integration (greater separability) in TM leads to a finer division of labor and greater task specialization than in AM. We study job vacancies assembled and processed by the labor markets consulting firm Burning Glass Technologies (BGT). The empirical work consists of an analysis of the content of job postings. This will build on work that identified tasks and skill demand for managers, engineers, technicians and operators in plants that employ traditional and additive manufacturing technologies.


    You have been muted: Communication, trust, and knowledge sharing in virtual work environments

    Adrianto and Christopher Winchester

    Knowledge is a vital issue for virtual teams as limitations in mediated communication can pose a substantial obstacle in its creation and distribution. In an experimental study, we found evidence of indirect effects of relational- and task-based communication on knowledge sharing through their effects on affect- and cognition-based trust, but only in communication conducted through high-cue media, whereas the effects were not significant in communication through highly virtual, low-cue media. This implies that virtual teams that interact mainly through low-cue media, such as e-mails or voice calls, but rarely in-person, can have a negative impact to knowledge creation as more frequent communication may not readily translate into higher trust, which is instrumental in promoting knowledge sharing among coworkers. In a highly virtual world brought about by the pandemic, this finding should be taken as a precaution when designing virtual work arrangements.


    The effects of communication medium on performance and effort in interdependent tasks: A lab experiment


    To examine performance and effort differentials between different types of task interdependence in various work modalities, I will conduct a lab experiment in which university students will solve a management game and coordinate their effort under different degrees of virtuality (i.e., in-person, video and voice call, only voice call, and chat). It is expected that pooled interdependent tasks are minimally affected by the degree of virtuality, whereas sequential and reciprocal interdependent tasks will be moderately and highly impacted by higher degrees of virtuality, respectively, due to increasing coordination load in the two latter types of tasks. Moreover, participants in the pooled interdependent tasks will exert lower effort levels since their performance will not affect their partner’s well-being, whereas they will give higher effort in sequential and reciprocal interdependent tasks as their performance will impose externality to their partner. In sum, this study aims to investigate empirical evidence of the different impacts of communication media on three types of task interdependence and the existence of peer effects in highly interdependent tasks.

  • Highest Distinction, Master of Science in Public Policy and Management, Heinz College (2014)

    Financial Education and Training Agency (FETA) Scholarship (2020-2024)

    Scholarship Program for Strengthening the Reforming Institution (2012-2014)

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