Campuses:

Research

The Gary S. Holmes Center for Entrepreneurship is a global leader in the development and dissemination of research that defines scholarship in the field of entrepreneurship. Carlson School faculty lead the discovery of knowledge in the areas of innovation, business formation, corporate entrepreneurship, venture capital, technology-based start-ups, and international entrepreneurship. Gifts to the school by Curt Carlson and Bob Buuck have established endowed chairs to support ongoing research.

With a reputation for the advancement of entrepreneurship research, the center attracts doctoral scholars from around the world who want to work with leading Carlson School faculty to develop innovations that result in new practices in entrepreneurship. Researchers also help build the center's international reputation and attract premier faculty to lead teaching efforts.

Featured Research

Small Firms as Sources of Employee Entrepreneurship: The Moderating Effect of Immigration Status

Shweta Gaonkar, University of Maryland and Martin Ganco, University of Minnesota

The existing evidence shows that entrepreneurs are more likely to have prior work experience in small relative to large firms. Similarly, the studies suggest that such effect is stronger for higher ability individuals. The prior experience in small firms also appears to have a positive impact on performance of entrepreneurs. The researchers theorize that employee entrepreneurs obtain relevant knowledge and skills through prior employment in small firms. At the same time, the future entrepreneurs self-select into employment at these small firms to gain such experience. The evidence, however, shows that a significant proportion of highly skilled individuals are immigrants. The anecdotal evidence indicates that immigrant entrepreneurs play a prominent role in the national economy. We ask the question of how does the immigration status affect the propensity of employee entrepreneurs to originate from small relative to large firms and what are the performance implications. Our central premise is that potential immigrant entrepreneurs may prefer larger firms as their employment prior to transitioning to entrepreneurship due to immigration process considerations – even though small firms may provide opportunities to acquire superior skills. Further, we examine whether such sub-optimal choice has implications in the form of entrepreneurial performance. We test our predictions using the SESTAT dataset of the U.S. scientists and engineers. Our preliminary results indicate that employee entrepreneurs who previously held temporary work visa status were more likely to choose larger firm as a place of employment prior to transiting to entrepreneurship relative to other workers. Such choice has also penalized them in terms of entrepreneurial performance. Our results underscore the fact that the constraints imposed by the immigration policy may negatively impact the employment choices of immigrants who consider future entrepreneurship and their post-entry entrepreneurial performance.

Who Leaves, Where To, and Why Worry?: Employee Mobility, Entrepreneurship and Effects on Source Firm Performance

Benjamin A. Campbell, Ohio State University; Martin Ganco, University of Minnesota; April M. Franco, University of Toronto; Rajshree Agarwal, University of Maryland

We theorize that the value provided by the firm’s complementary assets has important implications for the exit decisions of employees and their subsequent effects on the firm’s performance. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau on legal services, we find that employees with higher earnings are less likely to leave relative to employees with lower earnings, but if they do leave, they are more likely to create a new venture than join another firm. We also find that employees who leave to start a new venture have a larger adverse impact on the source firm performance than moves to established firms, even controlling for observable employee quality and other characteristics. We explain this effect through the ability and incentives of high ability individuals leaving established firms to create a new firm to transfer core and complementary assets including focal employee’s colleagues, clients and knowledge. From a practitioner perspective, our evidence that employee entrepreneurship has a significant negative impact on source firms relative to employee moves to established firms suggests that firms should tailor their micro level human capital strategies to reduce employee entrepreneurship more than traditional employee mobility. The most valuable employees appear to be the ones most likely to move to entrepreneurial firms. These employees are also very likely to take the entire bundles of resources including other employees, knowledge and client relationships. To avoid the loss of those who generate the most value, managers need to identify and assess which employees are most able to replicate or transfer a firm’s complementary assets and then strengthen their incentives to stay, or weaken their ability to replicate the complementary assets.

New Argonauts Versus Indigenous Entrepreneurs: Location of Knowledge and the Success of Employee Entrepreneurship

Pao-Lien Chen, National Tsing Hua University; Rajshree Agarwal, University of Maryland; Martin Ganco, University of Minnesota

The anecdotal evidence and recent research suggest that “New Argonauts” -- individuals who start businesses in their native countries after working for leading firms abroad -- are drivers of knowledge spillovers, and regional and global growth. Nevertheless, the performance outcomes of such international employee entrepreneurship are less clear. Individuals starting businesses across national boundaries face unique challenges. Even though working for a leading incumbent firm may equip future entrepreneurs with advanced knowledge of technologies and developed markets, applying this knowledge within a different national context requires knowledge of local conditions. Entrepreneurs without or with an outdated local knowledge may suffer from the “liability of foreignness” which has been shown to be detrimental to firm performance. Are “New Argonauts” better performers than local entrepreneurs? What type of knowledge -- local or non-local industry-specific knowledge -- is more important for startup success? To answer these questions, we examine performance outcomes of 132 Taiwanese (TW) semiconductor startups over the period 1990-2009 -- within the context of the mature semiconductor industry. Our preliminary results indicate that ventures started by founders who have both non-local (US) and local (TW) prior work experience outperform other startups. We also find that firms started by founders with only local experience (TW) survive longer than firms founded by founders with only non-local (US) prior work experience. However, firms started by founders with only non-local (US) experience produce more patents and generate more citations than startups founded by founders with only local (TW) experience. Our results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that “New Argonauts” are a potential source of regional growth and knowledge spillovers. Nevertheless, our results highlight that innovativeness does not necessarily translate into survival for which the local knowledge is critical.

Professor Martin Ganco [add link to faculty profile] is leading ongoing academic research projects analyzing factors that drive entrepreneurial activity around the world.

SME Faculty Research by Author

Ahuja, G, Toh, P.K., 2005. Three entries: "Innovations," "Radical Innovations," and "Disruptive Innovations" in Hitt M. A. and Ireland R. D., (Ed). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management – Entrepreneurship.

Ahuja, G., Toh, P.K., "Performance Effects of Resource Interdependence: A Study of Firms' Products and Process Innovations," working paper.

Autio, E., Sapienza, H.J. & Almeida, J.G., 2000. "Effects of Age at Entry, Knowledge Intensity, and Imitability on International Growth," Academy of Management Journal. 43, 5: 909-924.

De Clercq, D., Fried, V., Lehtonen, O. & Sapienza, H.J., 2006. "An Entrepreneur's Guide to the Venture Capital Galaxy," Academy of Management Perspectives. 20: 90-112.

De Clercq, D. & Sapienza, H.J., 2006. "Effects of Relational Capital and Commitment on Venture Capitalists' Perception of Portfolio Company Performance." Journal of Business Venturing. 21: 326-347.

De Clercq, D, Sapienza, H.J. & Crijns, H., 2005. "The Internationalization of Small and Medium-Sized Firms: The Role of Organizational Learning Effort and Entrepreneurial Orientation." Small Business Economics, 24: 409-419.

De Clercq, D. & Sapienza, H.J., 2005. "When Do Venture Capital Firms Learn From Their Portfolio Companies?" Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29: 517-535.

De Clercq D. & Sapienza H.J., 2001. "The Creation of Relational Rents in Venture Capitalist-Entrepreneur Dyads." Venture Capital, 3: 107-127.

De Clercq, D., Sapienza, H.J. & Zaheer, A., forthcoming. "Firm and Group Influences On Venture Capital Firms' Involvement in New Ventures." Journal of Management Studies.

Dushnitsky, G., and Shaver, J.M., "Limitations to Inter-organizational Knowledge Acquisition: The Paradox of Corporate Venture Capital," under review, Strategic Management Journal.

Forbes, D., Borchert, P., Zellmer-Bruhn, M. & Sapienza, H.J. 2006., "Entrepreneurial Team Formation: An Exploration of New Member Addition." Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 30, 225-248.

Forbes, D., 2005. "Managerial Determinants of Decision Speed in New Ventures," Strategic Management Journal.

Forbes, D., 2005. "Are Some Entrepreneurs More Overconfident Than Others?" Journal of Business Venturing.

Forbes, D., 2005. "The Effects of Strategic Decision Making on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy," Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29: 599-626.

Forbes, D., 1999. "Cognitive Approaches to New Venture Creation," International Journal of Management Reviews, 1: 415-440.

Forbes, D.F., Korsgaard, M.A. & Sapienza, H.J., "Board Conflict in the Aftermath of the Market Crash," working paper.

Keil, T., Maula, M., Juiha & Zahra, S., "Exploration, Exploitation and Firm Performance: Analysis of S&P 500 Corporations," Strategic Management Journal, 2008, in press.

Keil, T., Maula, M., Schildt, H. & Zahra, S., "The Effect of Governance Modes and Relatedness of External Business Development Activities on Innovative Performance," Strategic Management Journal, 2008, in press.

Lifschitz, A., DeVaughn, M. & Fremeth, A., 2007. "Tell Me Who Your Friends Are: Networks, Identity, and Performance in Florida Start-Up Banks," Unpublished Manuscript.

Lockett, A., Wright, M., Sapienza, H. J., & Pruthi, S., 2002. "Venture Capital Investors, Valuation and Information: A Comparative Study of the US, Hong Kong, India, and Singapore," Venture Capital, 4(3): 237-253.

Mahnke, V., Venzin, M. & Zahra, S, "Governing Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition in Mnes: Aligning Interests ad Cognition Under Uncertainty," Journal of Management Studies [Special Issue], 2007, in press.

Manigart, S., De Waele, K., Wright, M., Robbie K., Desbrieres, P., Sapienza, H.J. & Beekman, A., 2002. "Determinants of Required Returns in Venture Capital Investments: A Five-Country Study," Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 291-312.

Manigart, S., De Waele, K., Wright, M., Robbie, K., Desbrieres, P., Sapienza, H.J., & Beekman, A., 2000. "Venture Capitalists, Investment Appraisal and Accounting Information: A Comparative Study of the US, UK, France, Belgium, and Holland," European Financial Management, 6, 3, 389-404.

Mudambi, R. & Zahra, S., 2007. "The Survival of International New Ventures," Journal of International Business Studies, 38(2), 333-352.

Murtha, T., Lenway, S., & Hart, J., 2001. Managing New Industry Creation: Global Knowledge Formation and Entrepreneurship in High Technology, Stanford Business Books.

Newey, L. & Zahra, L., "The Effect of Interactions Between Operating and Dynamic Capabilities on Firm Evolution," British Journal of Management, 2008, in press.

Pavone, C., Autio, E. Hameri, A., & Sapienza, H.J., "Improvisational and Social Capital Influences on High-Technology Supplier Learning," working paper.

Penner-Hahn, J., and Shaver, J.M., 2005. "Does International Research and Development Affect Patent Output? An Analysis of Japanese Pharmaceutical Firms," Strategic Management Journal, 26(2), 121-140.

Saparito, P.A., Chen, C.C. & Sapienza, H.J., 2004. "The Role of Relational Trust in Bank-Small Firm Relationships," Academy of Management Journal, 47(3): 400-410.

Sapienza, H.J., Autio, E., George, G., & Zahra, S., 2006. "A Capabilities Perspective on the Effects of New Venture Internationalization on Survival and Growth," Academy of Management Review, 31, 914-933.

Sapienza, H.J., Parhankangas, A., & Autio, E., 2004. "Knowledge Relatedness and Post Spinoff-Growth," Journal of Business Venturing, 19: 809-829.

Sapienza, H.J., Korsgaard, M.A., & Forbes, D., 2003. "The Self-Determination Motive and Entrepreneurs Choice of Financing," In J. Katz & D. Shepherd, Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm, Emergence and Growth.

Sapienza, H.J., Korsgaard, M.A., Goulet. P., & Hoogendam , J.P., 2000. "Effects of Agency Risks and Procedural Justice on Board Processes in Venture Capital-Backed Firms." Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12: 331-351.

Sapienza, H.J & De Clercq, D., 2000. "Venture Capitalist-Entrepreneur Relationships in Technology-Based Ventures," Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 1, 1: 57-71.

Sapienza, H.J., Zaheer, A. & Harris, J. "Getting to Trust in Venture Capital Settings: Resolving Mixed Signals of Goodwill and Competence Trustworthiness," working paper.

Salomon, R. & Shaver, J.M., 2005 "Learning by Exporting: New Insights From Examining Firm Innovation," Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 14(2), 431-460.

Vaaler P.M., & Mcnamara, G. "Are Technology-Intensive Industries More Dynamically Competitive? No and Yes," working paper.

Van De Ven, A., Sapienza, H. & Villanueva, J., 2008. "Entrepreneurial Pursuits of Self- and Collective Interests," forthcoming in Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol. 1.

Van Den Ven, A. & Hargrave, T., 2006. "A Collective Action Model of Institutional Innovation," Academy of Management Review.

Van De Ven, A., 2005. "Running in Packs to Develop Knowledge-Intensive Technologies," MIS Quarterly.

Van De Ven, A. & Poole, M.S., 2004. Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation, Oxford University Press.

Van De Ven, A., Poole, M.S., Dooley, K. & Holmes, M., 2000. Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research, Oxford University Press.

Van De Ven, A., Angel, H. & Poole, M.S., 2000. Research on the Management of Innovation: The Minnesota Studies, Oxford University Press.

Van De Ven., A., Polley, D., Garud, R. & Venkataraman S., 1999. The Innovation Journey, Oxford University Press.

Van De Ven, A., Sapienza, H.J. & Villanueva, J., forthcoming. "Entrepreneurial Pursuits of Self and Collective Interests," Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal.

Van De Ven, A. Rogers, R., Bechara, J., & Sun, K., forthcoming. "Organizational Diversity, Integration, and Performance," Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Villanueva, J., Van De Ven, A.H. & Sapienza, H.J. "Entrepreneurial Resource Mobilization," working paper.

Wright, M., Lockett, A., Pruthi, S., Manigart, S., Sapienza, H.J., Desbrieres, P., & Hommel, U., 2004. "Venture Capital Investors, Capital Markets, Valuation and Information: US, Europe and Asia," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 2(4): 305-326.

Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E. & Sapienza, H.J., 2001. "Social Capital, Knowledge Acquisition, and Knowledge Exploitation in Young Technology-Based Firms," Strategic Management Journal, 22: 587-613.

Yli-Renko, H., Sapienza H.J. & Hay, M., 2001. "The Role of Contractual Governance Flexibility in Realizing the Outcomes of Key Customer Relationships," Journal of Business Venturing, 16: 529-555.

Zahra, S., 2007. "Contextualizing Theory Building in Entrepreneurship Research," Journal of Business Venturing, 22(3), 443-452.

Zahra, S., Sapienza, H.J. & Davidsson, P., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda," Journal of Management Studies. 43: 917-955. Selected As Best Paper in JMS For 2006.

Zahra, S., Rawhouser, H., Bhawe, N., Neubaum, D. & Hayton, J., "The Globalization of Social Entrepreneurship," Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2008, in press.

Zahra, S., Gedajlovic , E., Neubaum, D. & Shulman, J., "A Typology of Social Entrepreneurs: Motives, Search Processes and Ethical Challenges," Journal of Business Venturing, 2008, in press.

Zahra, S. & Hayton, J., "The Effect of International Venturing on Firm Performance: The Moderating Influence of Absorptive Capacity," Journal of Business Venturing, 2007, in press.

Zahra, S., Van Develde, E. & Larrenta, B., "Knowledge Conversion Capability and the Performance of Corporate and University Spin-Offs," Industrial & Corporate Change, 2007, in press.

Zahra, S., Neubaum, D., & Naldi, L., "The Effects of Ownership and Governance on Smes' International Knowledge-Based Resources," Small Business Economics, 2007, in press.

Zahra, S., Neubaum, D. & Larrenta, B., "Knowledge Sharing and Technological Capabilities: The Moderating Role of Family Involvement," Journal of Business Research, 2007, in press.

SME Faculty Research by Topic

Carlson School of Management, 2000–Present

Corporate/Institutional Entrepreneurship

"Knowledge Relatedness and Post Spinoff-Growth." *Sapienza, H. J., Parhankangas, A. & Autio. E. Journal of Business Venturing. 19: 809-829. 2004. *Authors contributed equally and are listed in reverse alphabetical order.

"The Context-Specific Nature of Competence and Corporate Development." Van de Ven, Andrew H., Asian Pacific Journal of Management. 21: 123-147. 2004.

"Emerging Issues in Corporate Entrepreneurship." Dess, G., Ireland, D., Zahra, S., Floyd, S., Janney, J. & Lane, P. Journal of Management [Special issue]. 29: 351-378. 2003.

"The Effects of Business-University Alliances on Innovative Output and Financial Performance: A Study of Publicly Traded Biotechnology Companies." George, G., Zahra, S. & Wood, D. Journal of Business Venturing. 17(6): 557-590. 2002.

"Middle Managers' Perceptions of the Internal Environment for Corporate Entrepreneurship: Assessing a Measurement Scale." Hornsby, J., Kuratko, D. & Zahra, S. Journal of Business of Business Venturing. 17(3): 253-273. 2002.

Governance of Entrepreneurial Ventures

"The Effects of Ownership and Governance on SMEs' International Knowledge-based Resources." Zahra, S. Neubaum, D. & Naldi, L. Small Business Economics. 2007. in press.

"An Embeddedness Framing Of Governance and Opportunism: Towards A Cross-Nationally Accommodating Theory Of Agency--A Critique And Extension." Zahra, S. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 28(1): 69-73, January 2007.

"Governing the Entrepreneurial Firm: A Knowledge Based View." Zahra, S. & Flatotchev, I. Journal of Management Studies. 41(5): 885-898. 2004. [Invited]

"The Role of Contractual Governance Flexibility in Realizing the Outcomes of Key Customer Relationships." Yli-Renko H, Sapienza HJ & Hay M. Journal of Business Venturing. 16: 529-555. 2001.

"Entrepreneurship in Medium-Size Companies: Exploring the Effects of Ownership and Governance Systems." Zahra, S., Neubaum, D. O. & Huse, M. Journal of Management. 26(5): 947-976. 2000.

  • Cited in the Financial Times (London), August 19, 2002, p. 10.
  • Reprinted in Clarke, T. (ed), 2005. Corporate Governance: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, Vol. 5. London: Routledge: 173-207.

"Effects of Agency Risks and Procedural Justice on Board Processes in Venture Capital-Backed Firms." Sapienza, HJ, Korsgaard MA, Goulet P & Hoogendam JP. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development. 12: 331-351. 2000.

Innovation and Change

"A Collective Action Model of Institutional Innovation." Timothy Hargrave and Andrew H. Van de Ven, Academy of Management Review. 31(4): 864-888. 2006.

"Net-enabled Business Innovation Cycle and the Evolution of Dynamic Capabilities." Zahra, S. & George, G. Information Systems Research. 13(2): 147-150. 2002.

International Entrepreneurship

"Building Bridges, Windows, and Cultures: Mediating Mechanisms Between Heterogeneity and Performance in Global Teams." Maloney, M. M. &, Zellmer-Bruhn. M. E. Management International Review. Forthcoming.

"The Survival of International New Ventures." Mudambi, R. & Zahra, S. Journal of International Business Studies. 2007. in press.

"A Capabilities Perspective on the Effects of New Venture Internationalization on Survival and Growth." Sapienza, H.J., Autio, E., George, G., & Zahra, S. Academy of Management Review. 31(4): 914-933. 2006.

"When do Venture Capital Firms Learn From Their Portfolio Companies?" De Clercq, D. & Sapienza, H.J. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 29: 517-535. 2005.

"Antecedents of International and Domestic Learning Effort." Sapienza, H.J., De Clercq, D. & Sandberg, W. R. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(4): 437-457. 2005.

"Cognition and International Entrepreneurship: Implications for Research on International Opportunity Recognition and Exploitation." Zahra, S., Korri, J. & Yu, J. International Business Review. 14(2): 129-146. 2005.

"A Theory on International New Ventures: A Decade of Research." Zahra, S. Journal of International Business Studies. 36(1): 20-28. 2005.

"Ownership and Internationalization of Small Firms." George, G., Wiklund, J. & Zahra, S. Journal of Management. 31(2): 210-233. 2005.

"International Expansion of US Manufacturing Family Business: The Effect of Ownership and Involvement." Zahra, S. Journal of Business Venturing. 18(4): 495-511. 2003.

"National Culture and Entrepreneurship: A Review of Behavioral Research." Hayton, J., George, G., & Zahra, S. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 26(4): 33-52. 2002,

"Culture and Its Consequences for Entrepreneurship." George, G. & Zahra, S. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 26(4): 5-8. 2002. [Introduction to a Special Issue]

"Perceived Fairness, Decision Control, and Commitment in International Joint Venture Management Teams." Johnson, J.P, Korsgaard, M.A. & Sapienza, H.J. Strategic Management Journal. 23: 1141-1160. 2002. * Authors contributed equally and are listed alphabetically.

"Fostering Entrepreneurship during International Expansion: Managing Key Challenges." Zahra, S., Hayton, J., Marcel, J. & O'Neill, H. European Management Journal. 19(4): 359-370. 2001.

"The Effect of Strategic and Structural Context on Multinationals' Subsidiaries' Entrepreneurship." Zahra, S., Dharwadkar, R. & George, G. Strategic Management Journal. [2nd rev]. 2001.

"Effects of Age at Entry, Knowledge Intensity, and Imitability on International Growth." *Autio E, *Sapienza HJ & Almeida JG. Academy of Management Journal. 43(5): 909-924. 2000. * First two authors contributed equally.

"Corporate Entrepreneurship and Company Performance: The Moderating Effect of International Environmental Hostility." Zahra, S. & Garvis, S. International Journal of Business Venturing. 15: 469-492. 2000.

"International Expansion by New Venture Firms: International Diversity, Mode of Market Entry, Technological Learning and Performance." Zahra, S., Ireland, D. R. & Hitt, M. Academy of Management Journal. 43: 925-950. 2000.

  • Reprinted in Oviatt, B & McDougall, P. eds. International Entrepreneurship. Edgar, 2007.
  • Translated into Chinese in: Selected Collection of Award Winning Papers in Academy of Management Journal. Peking University Press, 2006, 192-242.

New Venture Creation, Management, and Strategy

New Venture Management

"Entrepreneurial Team Formation: An Exploration of New Member Addition." Forbes, D., Borchert, P., Zellmer-Bruhn, M. & Sapienza, H. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 30: 225-248. 2006.

"Managerial Determinants of Decision Speed in New Ventures." Forbes, D. Strategic Management Journal. 26: 355-366. 2005.

"The Effects of Strategic Decision Making on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy" Forbes, D. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 29: 599-626. 2005.

Technology Based New Ventures

"Building Technological Capabilities: Strategic and Industry Determinants of New Ventures' Inward Licensing." Zahra, S., Maula, M., & Keil, T. European Management Review. 2: 154-166. 2005.

"Leveraging Technological Resources for Competitive Advantage: The Case of Software New Ventures." Zahra, S., Matherne, B. & Carleton, J. Journal of International Entrepreneurship. 1(2): 163-186. 2003.

"Social Capital, Knowledge Acquisition, and Knowledge Exploitation in Young Technology-Based Firms." Yli-Renko H, Autio E & Sapienza HJ. Strategic Management Journal. 22: 587-613. 2001.

"Technology Strategy and Software New Venture Performance: The Moderating Effect of the Competitive Environment." Zahra, S. & Bogner, W. Journal of Business Venturing. 15(2): 135-173. 2000.

"Strategy and New Venture Performance: A Comparison of Independent and Corporate Ventures in the Biotechnology Industry." Zahra, S. & George, G. Journal of High Technology Management Research. 10(2): 313-345. 2000.

General

"Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda," Zahra, S., Sapienza, H.J. & Davidsson, P. Journal of Management Studies. 43: 917-955. 2006.

"How Much do You Trust Me? The Dark Side of Relational Trust in New Business Creation in Established Companies." Zahra, S., Yavuz, R. I. & Ucbasaran, D. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 30(4): 541-449. 2006.

"The Role of Relational Trust in Bank-Small Firm Relationships." Saparito, P.A., Chen, C.C. & Sapienza, H.J. Academy of Management Journal. 47(3): 400-410. 2004.

"Event and Outcome Driven Explanations of Entrepreneurship," Andrew H. Van de Ven and Rhonda M. Engleman. Journal of Business Venturing. 19: 343-358. 2004.

"Competitive Analysis and New Venture Performance: The Moderating Effect of Strategic Uncertainty and Venture Origin." Zahra, S. & Neubaum, D. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 27(5): 1-28. 2002.

"Characteristics and Outcomes of Entrepreneurial Collaborations." Gravis, D., Ireland, D. R. & Zahra, S. Management Research. 1(3): 213-225. 2003.

Venture Capital

"Venture Capital Investors, Capital Markets, Valuation and Information: US, Europe and Asia." Wright, M., Lockett, A., Pruthi, S., Manigart, S., Sapienza, H.J., Desbrieres, P., & Hommel, U. Journal of International Entrepreneurship. 2(4): 305-326. 2004.

"Determinants of Required Returns in Venture Capital Investments: A five-Country Study." Manigart S, DeWaele K, Wright M, Robbie K, Desbrieres P, Sapienza HJ & Beekman A. Journal of Business Venturing. 17: 291-312. 2002.

"Venture Capital Investors, Valuation and Information: A Comparative Study of the US, Hong Kong, India and Singapore." Lockett, A., Wright, M., Sapienza, H. J., & Pruthi, S. Venture Capital. 4(3): 237-253. 2002.

"Venture Capitalists, Investment Appraisal and Accounting Information: A Comparative Study of the US, UK, France, Belgium and Holland." Manigart S, De Waele K, Wright M., Robbie K, Desbrieres P, Sapienza HJ & Beekman A. European Financial Management. 6(3): 389-404. 2000.

"The Effects of Alliance Portfolio Characteristics and Absorptive Capacity on Performance: A Study of Biotechnology Firms." George, G., Zahra, S., Wheatley, K. & Khan, R. Journal of High Technology Management Research. 12(1): 205-226. 2001.

"Venture Capitalist-Entrepreneur Relationships in Technology-Based Ventures." Sapienza, H.J & De Clercq, D. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies. 1(1): 57-71. 2000.

"An Entrepreneur's Guide to the Venture Capital Galaxy." De Clercq, D., Fried, V., Lehtonen, O. & Sapienza, HJ. Academy of Management Perspectives. 20: 90-112. 2006.

"When Do Venture Capital Firms Learn From Their Portfolio Companies?" De Clercq, D. & Sapienza, H.J. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. 29: 517-535. 2005.

"The Self-Determination Motive and Entrepreneurs Choice of Financing." Sapienza, H., Korsgaard, M.A. & Forbes, D. In J. Katz & D. Shepherd (Eds.), Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence & Growth. 6: 105-138. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 2003.

"The Creation of Relational Rents in Venture Capitalist-Entrepreneur Dyads." De Clercq D & Sapienza HJ. Venture Capital. 3: 107-127. 2001.

Miscellaneous

Family Businesses

"Entrepreneurial Risk Taking in Family Firms." Zahra, S. Family Business Review. 18(1):23-40. 2005.

"Family Business Research: A Strategic Reflection." Zahra, S. & Sharma, P. Family Business Review. 17(4): 331-346. 2004.

"Entrepreneurship in Family vs. Non-Family Firms: A Resource-Based Analysis of the Effect of Organizational Culture." Zahra, S. Hayton, J. & Salvato, C. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 28(4): 363-381. 2004.

"Creating Wealth in Family Firms Through Managing Resources." Chrisman, J., Chua, J. & Zahra, S. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 27(4): 359-365. 2003.

"Relational and Contractual Governance in Family Firms: Effects on Strategic Decision Making." Mustakallio, M., Autio, E. & Zahra, S. Family Business Review. 15(3): 205-222. 2002.

General Entrepreneurship

"Contextualizing Theory Building in Entrepreneurship Research." Zahra, S. Journal of Business Venturing. 2006. in press.

"Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda." Zahra, S., Sapienza, H. & Davidsson, P. Journal of Management Studies. 43(4):917-955. 2006.

"Scholarly Communities in Entrepreneurship Research: A Co-citation Analysis." Schildt, H. A., Zahra, S. & Sillanpää, A. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 30(3): 399-415. 2006.

"Are you Talking to Me?: The Nature of Community in Entrepreneurship Sholarship." Gartner, W., Davidsson, P. & Zahra, S. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 30(3): 321-331. 2006.

"Are Some Entrepreneurs More Overconfident Than Others?" Forbes, D. Journal of Business Venturing. 20: 623-640. 2005.

"The Practice of Management: Reflections on Peter Drucker's Landmark Book." Zahra, S. Academy of Management Executive. 17(1): 16-23. 2003.

"The Practice of Management: A Great Book with Great Ideas." Zahra, S. Academy of Management Executive. 17(1): 7-8. 2003.

"An Interview with Peter Drucker: On The Practice of Management." Zahra, S. Academy of Management Executive. 17(1): 9-12. 2003.

"Privatization and Entrepreneurial Transformation: A Review and Research Agenda." Zahra, S., Ireland, D., Guiterrez, I. & Hitt. Academy of Management Review, 25(3): 509-524. 2000. [Introduction to the AMR Special Topic Forum.]

  • Reprinted in: Mudambi, R., ed. Privatization and Globalization: The Changing Role of the State in Business. Edward Elgar, 2003.

"Defining Entrepreneurship as a Scholarly Field." Zahra, S. & Dess, G. Academy of Management Review. 26: 8-10. 2001. (Dialogue section.)